ESIL Interest Group History of International Law

ESIL Interest Group History of International Law

vrijdag 29 januari 2021

BOOK: Maurits EBBEN & Louis SICKING (Eds.), Beyond Ambassadors. Consuls, Missionaries, and Spies in Premodern Diplomacy (Leiden: Brill, 2021), 223 p. ISBN: 9789004438842, € 99.00

 (Source: Brill)


Series: Rulers & Elites, Volume: 19. Contributors are: Maurits Ebben, Dante Fedele, Alan Marshall, Jacques Paviot, Felicia Roșu, Jean-Baptiste Santamaria, Louis Sicking, and John Watkins.

Because of the overarching shadow of ‘the state’ in all things diplomatic, traditional diplomatic history has neglected the study of any actors in foreign relations other than state diplomats, such as ambassadors. This volume focuses on the question of how and why consuls, missionaries, and spies not formally tied to the state or a prince could play a role in premodern diplomatic relations. It highlights their multiple loyalties, their volatility, and the porous boundaries of diplomatic activity. Historical research on non-state actors – in the context of the so-called new diplomatic history – is all the more urgent as it demonstrates their undeniably significant contributions to the formation of Europe’s international relations. 


Maurits Ebben (1955) is a lecturer at Leiden University, Ph.D. Leiden University 1996. He is currently working on a new volume entitled Ambassadors, Consuls and Commerce: The Dutch Diplomatic Service in the Later Seventeenth Century, 1648-1700. 

Louis Sicking is the Aemilius Papinianus professor of history of public international law at VU University and lecturer in history at the University of Leiden. He is presently working on a book on conflict management in pre-modern Atlantic Europe.


List of Maps and Table 
Notes on Contributors 
  Maurits Ebben and Louis Sicking 
Part I
Theoretical Challenges 
1. Premodern Non-State Agency: the Theoretical, Historical, and Legal Challenge 
  John Watkins 
2. Plurality of Diplomatic Agents in Premodern Literature on the Ambassador 
  Dante Fedele 
Part II
3. Space, Agency, and Conflict Management in the Late Medieval Baltic: Urban Colonies and Representatives of Hanse Towns at Scania 
Louis Sicking 
4. Your High and Mighty Lordships’ Most Humble Servants: Dutch Consuls and the States General’s Diplomacy in Spain, 1648–1661 
Maurits Ebben 
Part 3 
5. The Mendicant Friars: Actors in Diplomatic Encounters with the Mongols 
  Jacques Paviot 
6. The New Indies, the Desired Indies: Antonio Possevino and the Jesuits between Diplomacy and Missionarism in Northeastern Europe, 1577–1587 
  Felicia Roșu 
Part IV
7. Secrets, Diplomatics, and Spies in Late Medieval France and in the Burgundian State: Parallel Practices and Undercover Operations 
  Jean-Baptiste Santamaria 
8. ‘Secret Wheeles’: Clandestine Information, Espionage, and European Intelligence 
  Alan Marshall 
Index of Names 

More information with the publisher

donderdag 28 januari 2021

BOOK: Geoffrey GRANDJEAN, Histoire de la construction européenne (Brussels : Larcier, 2020). ISBN 9782802739708, 90.00 EUR


(Source: Larcier)

Larcier has published a book on the history of “la construction européenne”.


À l’heure où l’Union européenne donne des signes d’un délitement annoncé, cet ouvrage s’intéresse, dans la perspective du temps long, aux États et aux personnalités politiques ayant joué et jouant encore un rôle majeur dans l’histoire de la construction européenne. En interrogeant l’idée d’Europe, en examinant les conséquences des deux guerres mondiales et en détaillant les étapes de la construction européenne, cet ouvrage tend à démontrer que l’Union européenne ne vit que par ses États et pour ses États.

À travers l’analyse de faits historiques, la présentation de notices biographiques et l’étude de textes fondamentaux, cette Histoire de la construction européenne propose une immersion dans des contextes politiques, sociaux, économiques ou encore culturels à la fois convergents et divergents. Elle est surtout l’occasion de s’interroger sur la possibilité de concrétiser une commune solidarité entre les citoyens et les États européens.


Geoffrey Grandjean : Professeur de science politique à la Faculté de Droit, de Science politique et de Criminologie (ULiège)


The table of contents can be found here


More info here

(source: ESCLH Blog)

woensdag 27 januari 2021

BOOK: Peter BECKER & Natasha WHEATLEY (Eds.), Remaking Central Europe - The League of Nations and the Former Habsburg Lands (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021). ISBN 9780198854685, 99.00 USD


(Source: OUP)

Oxford University Press has published a new book on the new international order after World War I in the former Habsburg lands.


Over the last two decades, the "new international order" of 1919 has grown into an expansive new area of research across multiple disciplines. With the League of Nations at its heart, the interwar settlement's innovations in international organizations, international law, and many other areas shaped the world we know today.


This book presents the first study of the relationship between this new international order and the new regional order in Central and Eastern Europe after the collapse of the Habsburg empire. An analysis of the co-implication of these two orders is grounded in four key scholarly interventions: understanding the legacies of empire in international organizations; examining regionalism in the work of interwar international institutions; creating an integrated history of the interwar order in Europe; and testing recent claims of the conceptual connection between nationalism and internationalism.


With chapters covering international health, international financial oversight, human trafficking, minority rights, scientific networks, technical expertise, passports, commercial treaties, borders and citizenship, and international policing, this book pioneers a regional approach to international order, and explores the origins of today's global governance in the wake of imperial collapse.


Peter Becker is Professor of Austrian History in the Department of History at the University of Vienna. Before moving to Vienna, he held a professorship at the European University Institute in Florence, where he started his research on the history of modern state and governance especially of the Habsburg monarchy and on the cultural history of public administration.


Natasha Wheatley is an Assistant Professor in the Department of History at Princeton University. Prior to joining the Princeton faculty, she completed her PhD at Columbia University and was an ARC Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Sydney.


Introduction: Central Europe and the New International Order of 1919, Peter Becker and Natasha Wheatley

1. Habsburg Histories of Internationalism, Glenda Sluga

Part One: Remaking Actors and Networks

2. Clemens Pirquet: Early Twentieth-Century Scientific Networks, the Austrian Hunger Crisis, and the Making of the International Food Expert, Michael Burri

3. Reinventing International Health in East Central Europe: The League of Nations, State Sovereignty, and Universal Health, Sara Silverstein

4. The Polycentric Remaking of International Participation after World War I: (Post-)Imperial Agents from Eastern Europe in and around the League of Nations' Secretariat, Katja Naumann

5. Austria, the League of Nations, and the Birth of Multilateral Financial Control, Nathan Marcus

6. Hungary and the League of Nations: A Forced Marriage, Zoltan Peterecz

7. On the Fraught Internationalism of Intellectuals: Alfons Dopsch, Austria, and the League's Intellectual Cooperation Program, Johannes Feichtinger

Part Two: Remaking Territories and Borders

8. Remaking Mobility: International Conferences and the Emergence of the Modern Passport System, Peter Becker

9. International Commerce in the Wake of Empire: Central European Economic Integration between National and Imperial Sovereignty, Madeleine Lynch Dungy

10. Fighting the Scourge of International Crime: The Internationalisation of Policing and Criminal Law in Interwar Europe, David Petruccelli

11. Nation, Internationalism, and the Policies against Trafficking in Girls and Women after the Fall of the Habsburg Empire, Martina Steer

12. The League of Nations and the Optants Disputes of the Hungarian Borderlands: Romania, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, Antal Berkes

13. Non-Territorial Autonomy in Interwar European Minority Protection and Its Habsburg Legacies, Börries Kuzmany

14. Beyond the League of Nations: Public Debates on International Relations in Czechoslovakia during the Interwar Period, Sarah Lemmen

An Epilogue to the Making and Unmaking of Central Europe and Global Order, Patricia Clavin


More info here

(source: ESCLH; and see call earlier on this blog)

dinsdag 26 januari 2021

BOOK: Stefan EKLÖF AMIRELL, Pirates of Empire. Colonisation and Maritime Violence in Southeast Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019). ISBN: 9781108594516, £ 75.00


(Source: CUP)


The suppression of piracy and other forms of maritime violence was a keystone in the colonisation of Southeast Asia. Focusing on what was seen in the nineteenth century as the three most pirate-infested areas in the region - the Sulu Sea, the Strait of Malacca and Indochina - this comparative study in colonial history explores how piracy was defined, contested and used to resist or justify colonial expansion, particularly during the most intense phase of imperial expansion in Southeast Asia from c.1850 to c.1920. In doing so, it demonstrates that piratical activity continued to occur in many parts of Southeast Asia well beyond the mid-nineteenth century, when most existing studies of piracy in the region end their period of investigation. It also points to the changes over time in how piracy was conceptualised and dealt with by each of the major colonial powers in the region - Britain, France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United States. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.


Stefan Eklöf Amirell is Associate Professor in History at Linnaeus University, Sweden. He is also the President of the Swedish Historical Association and Sweden's delegate to the International Committee of Historical Sciences (ICHS/CISH). Among his previous works are Pirates in Paradise: A Modern History of Southeast Asia's Maritime Marauders (2006) and several articles on piracy in Southeast Asia.


List of Maps page vi
Preface vii
Acknowledgements ix
Introduction 1
1 Piracy in Global and Southeast Asian History 21
2 The Sulu Sea 42
3 The Strait of Malacca 96
4 Indochina 161
Conclusion 209
Epilogue: Piracy and the End of Empire 232
Bibliography 236
Index 257

More information with the publisher.

(source: ESCLH Blog)

maandag 25 januari 2021

CONFERENCE: Imperial Artefacts: History, Law and the Looting of Cultural Property (Leiden/Online, 28-29 JAN 2021)

(image: Universiteit Leiden, Rapenburg; source: Wikimedia Commons)


The conference 'Imperial Artefacts: History, Law and the Looting of Cultural Property' (organized by Diana M. Natermann (Leiden) and Inge Van Hulle (Tilburg)), advertised earlier on this blog, will take place online on Thursday and Friday.


All keynotes and panels are held via MS Teams and it is generally recommended to use either Google Chrome or Chromium Edge as browsers.


09:15 – 09:30 Welcome wordsInge Van Hulle & Diana M. Natermann
09:30 – 10:30 KeynoteProf. Dr. Jürgen Zimmerer – Looting, restitution, reconciliation (09:30 Germany)

10:30 – 10:45 Coffee break


1. Diplomacy, Identity and Restitution – Panel Chair: Diana Natermann

10:45 – 11:15 Lucas Lixinski (20.45 Sydney, Australia), ‘Beyond UNESCO: Regional International Legal Approaches to Post-Colonial Restitution’
11:15 – 11:45 Sahra Rausch (11:15 Germany), ‘An Affective De-Memorization? Debates over Colonial Amnesia regarding the Repatriation of Human Remains from Colonial Contexts in France and Germany’
11:45 – 12:15 Lars Müller (11:45 Germany), ‘Delaying, Evading, Rejecting. Western Reactions to Sri Lankan Demands for Restitution around 1980’

12:15 – 13:00 Lunch Break


2. Multi-disciplinary Perspectives on Colonial Violence and Restitution – Panel Chair: Raphael Shafer

13:00 – 13:30 Rotem Giladi (13:15 Israel), ‘Reading Between Categories: Corpora, Culture, Property and the Laws of War’
13:30 – 14:00 Jan Huesgen (13:45 Germany), ‘The Enemy on Display – Suits of Armour in Military Museums’
14:00 – 14:30 Ivan Obadić, Robert Mrljic & Miran Marelja (14:15 Croatia, Belgium), ‘War, spoils and return of cultural property: framing of restitution law at the Congress of Vienna in 1815’

14:30 – 14:45 Coffee Break


3. Law and Restitution: Past & Present – Panel Chair: Ana Delic

14:45 – 15:15 Afolasade A. Adewumi (15:15 Nigeria), ‘Does Utilitarianism Merge the Dichotomy Between the Nationalist and Internationalist Conception of Cultural Property in the Quest for Restitution?
15:15 – 15:45 Arianna Visconti (15:45 Italy), ‘A Paradox in Law: Italy’s Ambivalent Approach to Restitution Claims’
16:45 – 16:15 Marie-Sophie de Clippele & Bert Demarsin (16:15 Belgium), ‘Rights, wrongs and remedies - Working towards colonial heritage repatriation legislation for Belgium’

16:15 – 16:30 Coffee Break


4. Heritage, Discourse and the Representation of Cultural Artefacts – Panel Chair: Walter Nkwi Gam

16:30 – 17:00 Annalisa Bolin (16:30 Sweden), ‘Power and Possibility: The Return of Rwanda’s Stolen Bones’
17:00 – 17:30 Kokou Amazede (16:00 Togo), Acquisition methods of colonial objects and the traditional perception of the museum in German Togo
17:30 – 18:00 Janne Lahti (18:30 Finland), ‘Mesa Verde and Finland: Stolen Artefacts, Contested Discourses, and Nordic Colonial Legacies’
18:00 – 18:30 Donna Yates (18:00 The Netherlands) and Brieanah Gouveia (07:00 Hawaii), ‘Provenance narratives of colonial exploitation as value enhancers on the Oceanic art market’
30 – 19:00 Kaitlyn DeLong (12:30 Washington DC), ‘Confronting the Past: The Provenance of Indigenous Objects on Display’


09:15 – 10:15 KeynoteJunior Prof. Dr. Matthias Goldmann, (09:15 Germany) ‘The Role of Law in the Restitution Debate’

10:15 – 10:30 Coffee break


1. Enduring Coloniality and Cultural Heritage – Panel Chair: Alexandra Ortolja-Baird

10:30 – 11:00 Iain Sandford and Ada Siqueira (20:30 Sydney, Australia), ‘The Destruction of the Juukan Gorge Caves: A Study on the Role of International Law in Protecting Cultural Heritage in Times of Peace’
11:00 – 11:30 Norman Aselmeyer (11:00 Germany), Intangible Heritage: The Man-Eaters of Tsavo and their Global (After)Lives
11:30 – 12:00 Marcelo Marques Miranda & Jully Acuña Suárez (11:30 The Netherlands), ‘Repatriation as a means, not as an end’

12:00 – 13:00 Lunch Break


2. International Legal History and Restitution Debates – Panel Chair: Inge Van Hulle

13:00 – 13:30 Tomás Irish (12:00 UK), ‘“The Danger of Arbitrary Decisions”: The Paris Peace Conference and Cultural Reparations after the First World War’
13:30 – 14:00 Sebastian Willert (13:30 Germany), ‘A German Excavation for the Ottoman Imperial Museum? The Scramble for Objects between Berlin and Istanbul at Tell Halaf, 1911–1914’
14:00 – 14:30 Florian Wagner (14:00 Germany): ‘Colonialist Notions of Property: How European Lawyers Legitimized Dispossession (1880s-1950s)’

14:30 – 15:00 Coffee Break


3. Restitution, Heritage, and Human Rights – Panel Chair: Anne-Isabelle Richards

15:00 – 15:30 Evelien Campfens (15:00 The Netherlands), ‘Whose cultural objects? Introducing ‘heritage title’ in a human rights law approach’
15:30 – 16:00 Jihane Chedouki (15:30 Morocco): ‘From a moral function to a utilitarian function: the transformation of ancient objects and monuments in the Arab world in the 19-20th centuries’
16:00 – 16:30 Gretchen Allen (15:00 Ireland), ‘A Way for the Giant’s Cause: an examination of Irish indigenous rights in the case of Charles Byrne’
16:30 – 17:00 Caroline Drieënhuizen & Fenneke Sysling (16:30 The Netherlands), ‘Java Man: restitution claims at the natural history museum’

17:00 Closing remarks: Inge Van Hulle & Diana M. Natermann

(source: Universiteit Leiden

vrijdag 22 januari 2021

VACANCY: Professor in Methods of Legal Research and Legal Theory (Ghent University, Deadline 22 FEB 2021)

(Aula Academica, Ghent University; image source: Wikimedia Commons)


The Faculty of Law and Criminology is recruiting a tenure track assistant professor for a full time position starting on 1 September 2021 in the discipline of Methods of Legal Research and Legal Theory. 

With this position, the faculty wishes to increase its expertise with a view to providing a sound methodological foundation for legal research in the faculty. This also requires the candidate to possess a solid knowledge of legal theory.

You will be appointed in the department of Interdisciplinary Study of Law, Private Law and Business Law (RE21). 

During the 5 year tenure track, you will have the possibility to devote most of your time to academic research activities in the field of Methods of Legal Research and Legal Theory, with a teaching load limited to no more than 8 ECTS credits per semester on average over a period of 3 years.

For the further development of the academic career, please see ‘Appointment information’ below.

Academic Research
You conduct research in the discipline of Methods of Legal Research and Legal Theory


Academic education

You will gradually be tasked with teaching assignments in the field of Methods of Legal Research and Legal Theory.


Academic services

You take part in the internal and external service provision of the department of Interdisciplinary Study of Law, Private Law and Business Law (RE21).
You advise colleagues on methodogical aspects of their academic research.


-    You have already conducted excellent academic research in the fields of methods of legal research and legal theory, which is clearly reflected in outstanding publications in national and international peer-reviewed books and/or journals;
-    You are didactically skilled to teach university students to develop academic competences; 
-    You are familiar with research methods in other social sciences.
-    Recommended are: 
          o    Experience in supervising research and/or coaching Ph.D. students;
          o    International mobility, among other things thanks to research stays at institutions external to the  one where you acquired your highest academic degree;
          o    Positively evaluated experience in provided or organised academic lecturing;
          o    Professionalisation of education.


Skills / Attitude 
-    You are quality-oriented; 
-    You take initiative;
-    You are a proactive person and possess strong interpersonal skills;
-    You are able to coach and adequately supervise young researchers.


Admission requirements
-    You hold a thesis-based doctorate or a diploma or certificate that is recognised as equivalent (article V.20 Codex Higher Education). 


Upon evaluation of a foreign (non-EU) diploma, a certificate of equivalence may still have to be requested at NARIC. If this is the case, we advise you to initiate this recognition procedure as soon as possible. You are required to have the recognition no later than on the date of your appointment. 


-    You have at least two years of postdoctoral experience 1 september 2021. This term of two years is determined by the date written on the above-mentioned required diploma.

 Appointment information

We offer you a temporary appointment as an assistant professor in a tenure track system for a term of five years with a focus on research. If positively evaluated by the University Board, the term of office will be transferred into a permanent appointment as an associate professor. At that moment the time devoted to research, education and academic services may be altered. The recruitment is possible no sooner than 1 september 2021.

More information here

woensdag 20 januari 2021

ONLINE LECTURE SERIES: Mark GOLDIE, John Locke and Empire (Oxford: The Carlyle Lectures in Hilary Term 2021)

(image source: University of Oxford)

On the speaker:
Mark Goldie, Professor Emeritus of Intellectual History, University of Cambridge; Honorary Professor, University of Sussex
Watch the full series here.


dinsdag 19 januari 2021

VIDEO: David ARMITAGE, "George III and the Law of Nations" (Sons of the American Revolution, Georgian Papers Programme Lecture 2020)

(image the young George III (on the right, 1749; source: Wikimedia Commons)

Prof. David Armitage (Harvard) gave the 2020 Sons of the American Revolution lecture for the Georgian Papers Programme, as announced earlier on our blog. Due to the covid-situation, this was an online lecture.

His lecture can be watched again here.

woensdag 6 januari 2021

JOURNAL: Journal of the History of International Law/Revue d'histoire du droit international XXII (2020), nr. 4

(image source: Brill)

‘A Retrograde Tendency’: The Expropriation of German Property in the Versailles Treaty (Nicholas Mulder)


This article explores how the Versailles Treaty was shaped by the effects of economic warfare 1914–1919. The First World War was in part an Allied economic war waged against the Central Powers in conditions of advanced economic and financial globalization. This was reflected in the treaty’s expropriation mechanisms, which were used to take control of German property, rights, and interests around the world. Whereas Articles 297 and 298 of the treaty legalized wartime seizures, the Reparations Section of the treaty also contained a provision, paragraph 18, that gave the Allies far-reaching confiscatory powers in the future. The article places these mechanisms in a wider political, legal and economic context, and traces how they became a bone of contention among the former belligerents in the interwar period.

The Economic World of the populus Romanus (Amy Russell)


Rome’s transformation from city-state to territorial empire involved a massive increase in wealth; it also both created and responded to fundamental political changes, in a moment often positioned as the creation myth of republicanism. James Tan has modelled the Republican economy as a three-way relationship between aristocrats, the state, and the people. Aristocrats competed with the state for access to the riches of conquest; simultaneously the state’s dependence on citizen taxation declined. This article examines the relationship between state and people as both practical and ideological. The People were sovereign, yet it was the People who increasingly lost their status as economic and political stakeholders even as their empire grew. The complex relationship between the people and the populus (‘the People’ as an institution) had economic as well as political elements, and is central to how we should apply notions of economic sovereignty to Republican Rome 

 Public-Private Concord through Divided Sovereignty: Reframing societas for International Law (Hans Blom & Mark Somos)


Grotius is the father of modern international law. The indivisibility of sovereignty was the sine qua non of early-modern conceptual innovation in law. Both statements are axiomatic in the mainstream literature of the last two centuries. Both are profoundly and interestingly wrong. This article shows that Grotius’ systematisation of public and international law involved defining corporations as potentially (and the VOC actually) integral to reason of state, and able to bear and exercise marks of sovereignty under certain conditions. For Grotius, some corporations were not subsumed under the state’s legal authority, nor were they hybrid ‘company-states’. Instead, states and such corporations, able and forced to cooperate, fell under dovetailing natural, international, and municipal systems of law. The article reexamines Grotius’ notion of international trade, public debt, private corporation, and public and private war through the reassembled prism of these dovetailing laws and the category of societas that underpins Grotian associations. It is argued that although formulated around the new East India trade, the actual reality of legal pluralism was available to Grotius in the Dutch trade experience of the sixteenth century.

Book reviews:

  • From Slaves to Prisoners of War: The Ottoman Empire, Russia, and International Law , written by Will Smiley (Joshua M. White)
  • Origins of the Right of Self-defence in International Law: From the Caroline Incident to the United Nations Charter , written by Tadashi Mori (Federica Paddeu)
  • The Trial of the Kaiser , written by William A. Schabas (David Cohen)

 (source: Brill)

dinsdag 5 januari 2021

BOOK: Alexander GILLESPIE, The Causes of War. Vol. IV: 1650-1800 (Oxford: Hart, 2021), 504 p. ISBN 9781509912179, 108 GBP

(image source: Hart)

Book abstract:
This is the fourth volume of a projected six-volume series charting the causes of war from 3000 BCE to the present day, written by a leading international lawyer, and using as its principal materials the documentary history of international law, largely in the form of treaties and the negotiations which led up to them. These volumes seek to show why millions of people, over thousands of years, slew each other. In departing from the various theories put forward by historians, anthropologists and psychologists, the author offers a different taxonomy of the causes of war, focusing on the broader settings of politics, religion, migrations and empire-building. These four contexts were dominant and often overlapping justifications during the first four thousand years of human civilisation, for which written records exist.

 Table of contents:

I . Introduction 

1. The Conversation on Sunday Afternoon
2. Utopia
3. Facts
4. Casus Belli in Practice
5. Volumes One to Three
6. Volume Four
II. The Glorious Revolution
1. Introduction
2. Republics
3. The First War between the Dutch and English Republics
4. Allies with France, War with Spain
5. The Restoration
6. Alliance with Portugal and Further War with Spain
7. A Second War with the Dutch, and then the French
8. Alliance with France, Further War against the Dutch, and Another Peace
9. War and Peace with English and the Indigenous Communities in the Colonies
10. The Causes of the Revolution in England
11. The Invasion of England
12. The Glorious Revolution
13. John Locke
14. Constitutional Monarchy Entrenched
15. Liberty
16. Conclusion
III. The Wars of Louis XIV
1. Introduction
2. The Ongoing Conflict with Spain
3. The War of Spanish Inheritance
4. The War of France and England against the Dutch Republic
5. The Reunion Wars
6. The Nine Years War
7. The War of Spanish Succession
8. Conclusion
IV. The Interregnum
1. Introduction
2. Succession and Dynastic Considerations
3. The War of the Quadruple Alliance
4. The 1720s
5. Skirting a Major Conflict in the 1730s
6. Conclusion
V. The War of Austrian Succession
1. Introduction
2. The Prize
3. Frederick II
4. The Opportunities for Others of the Habsburg Inheritance
5. Splintering the Opposition and Building New Alliances
6. The Slide Towards World War
7. Coming to the Boil
8. Full Boil
9. Bonnie Prince Charlie
10. Expansion and Exhaustion
11. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
12. Conclusion
VI. The Seven Years War
1. Introduction
2. The New Plan
3. Trouble in the Colonies
4. Austria Backs Away from its Alliance with Britain
5. Britain Makes a Deal with Russia
6. The Treaty of Westminster Trumps that with Russia
7. Misreading the Opposition
8. New Friends and New Neutrals: The First Treaties of Versailles
9. The Deepening Conflict
10. The Invasion of Saxony
11. The Widening Conflict in India and North America
12. The Expansion of the Anti-Prussian Alliance
13. Extreme Pressure Applied on Prussia
14. The Push Back
15. A Good Year for Britain
16. The Pressure on Prussia and Victories for Britain
17. The Entry of Spain
18. The Exit of Russia
19. The Last Actions
20. The Peace of Paris
21. The Peace of Hubertusburg
22. Conclusion
VII. The War of American Independence
1. Introduction
2. Before the Revolution
3. After the Seven Years War
4. Land and Native Americans
5. Sugar and Stamps
6. A Revised Approach
7. Tea
8. The Intolerable Acts
9. 1774: The Reaction
10. A Shot Heard Across the World
11. The Justification and Escalation
12. The First Help and Assistance
13. Common Sense
14. The Declaration of Independence
15. Military Survival and Political Cohesion
16. The French Enter the War
17. As the War Grinds on in North America, it Expands into Other Parts of the World
18. Spain Enters the Fray
19. Tupac's Rebellion in Peru
20. A Global War
21. The League of Armed Neutrality
22. The Last Years of the Conflict
23. Peace
24. The Native American Question
25. What the Americans Fought for
26. The United States and the Wider World in the 1790s
27. The French Revolution and the Turn Towards Isolationism
28. Conclusion
VIII. The French Revolution
1. Introduction
2. Kings
3. Philosophers
4. The Fuse to Revolution in France
5. The Foreign Context
6. War
7. The First Coalition against the Republic of France
8. Internal Enemies
9. The War Changes, Turns and Expands
10. Britain Fights Alone
11. The Second Coalition
12. Napoleon
13. Conclusion
IX. Slavery
1. Introduction
2. Numbers and Impact
3. Supply
4. Traders
5. Indentured Labour
6. The Laws of Slavery
7. Slave Revolts in the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century
8. Dissent against Slavery
9. Slave Revolts up to 1765
10. The American Revolution
11. The Abolitionist Movement in Britain
12. The French Revolution
13. Saint Dominique/Haiti
14. The Revolt
15. Conclusion
X. The Wars of North and Eastern Europe
1. Introduction
2. The First Northern War
3. The Second Northern War
4. Between the Wars
5. The War of Polish Succession
6. The Austrian War of Succession
7. The Seven Years War
8. Catherine the Great
9. The First Partition of Poland
10. Rebellions against Serfdom
11. The Almost War of Bavarian Succession
12. The Second Partition of Poland
13. The End of the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania
14. Paul I
15. Conclusion
XI. Religion
1. Introduction
2. Enlightenment
3. Religion as a Pretext for War
4. The Movement Towards Tolerance
5. Religion in the Revolutionary Wars
6. Conclusion
XII. The Muslim Territories
1. Introduction
2. The Ottoman Empire
3. The Siege of Vienna
4. North Africa
5. New Ottoman Conflict with Russia
6. New Ottoman Conflict with the Venetians and the Habsburgs
7. The End of the Safavid Dynasty
8. The Rise of Nader Shah
9. The Austro-Russian and Ottoman War of 1735 to 1739
10. Aurangzeb and the Mughal Empire
11. Nader Shah at Full Strength
12. The Rise of the British in India
13. Three Decades of Russian-Ottoman Conflict
14. War and Peace in Eighteenth-century North Africa
15. The Challenge at the Epicentre of the Ottoman Empire
16. Conclusion
XIII. China and its Neighbours
1. Introduction
2. The Shunzhi Emperor
3. The Kangxi Emperor
4. The Yongzheng Emperor
5. The Qianlong Emperor
6. Europeans
7. Conclusion
XIV. Grand Plans for Peace
1. Introduction
2. Hobbes
3. Penn
4. Leibniz
5. The Abbé Charles de Saint-Pierre
6. Vattel and Wolff
7. Voltaire
8. Rousseau
9. Bentham
10. Kant
11. Conclusion
XV. Conclusion
1. Absolute Rulers
2. Religion
3. Ideologies of the Enlightenment
4. The Muslim Territories 
5. China and Asia 

(source: Hart/ESCLH Blog

maandag 4 januari 2021

VIRTUAL MEETING: Raphaël CAHEN, Socio-Cultural History of International Lawyers (Orléans, Le Studium, 7 JAN 2021, 16:00 CET)


(image source: Le Studium)

Meeting abstract:
International law is said to be a distinct profession with institutions and journals first in the 1870's (Koskenniemi, Genin, Vec/Nuzzo). Nevertheless, from the Vienna Congress (1815) to the Franco-Prussian Wars (1870-1871), international lawyers have initiated professional practices that related to the development of International Law. They were involved in foreign offices, scientific academies, and universities, they wrote textbooks and articles and formed networks. This project aims to investigate the interaction between foreign offices and international lawyers as well as the link between political migration of lawyers and their implication in the making of international law. This research will therefore shed a new light on the discourses and processes leading to the institutionalisation of International Law. For the first time, it will also analyse closely the interactions between foreign offices and International Law as well as the juridification of international affairs in the 19th century. In this presentation, I will concentrate myself upon a prosopography of the international lawyers in the French foreign affairs ministry. Furthermore, I will investigate the consultative litigation committee of the Foreign affairs ministry that had been established in 1835.

On the speaker: 

Dr. Raphaël Cahen is postdoctoral research fellow of the University Research Council at the Research Group Contextual Research in Law and Guest Lecturer at the Faculty of Law and Criminology (VUB). In 2020-2021, he is Fellow in residence at the Loire Institute of Advanced Studies (Le Studium). 

(source: Le Studium