ESIL Interest Group History of International Law

ESIL Interest Group History of International Law

Friday 28 April 2023

BOOK: Tara ZAHRA, "Against the World: Anti-Globalism and Mass Politics Between the World Wars" (W. W. Norton & Company, 2023)

Image source: Norton Company


Before the First World War, enthusiasm for a borderless world reached its height. International travel, migration, trade, and progressive projects on matters ranging from women’s rights to world peace reached a crescendo. Yet in the same breath, an undercurrent of reaction was growing, one that would surge ahead with the outbreak of war and its aftermath.

In Against the World, a sweeping and ambitious work of history, acclaimed scholar Tara Zahra examines how nationalism, rather than internationalism, came to ensnare world politics in the early twentieth century. The air went out of the globalist balloon with the First World War as quotas were put on immigration and tariffs on trade, not only in the United States but across Europe, where war and disease led to mass societal upheaval. The “Spanish flu” heightened anxieties about porous national boundaries. The global impact of the 1929 economic crash and the Great Depression amplified a quest for food security in Europe and economic autonomy worldwide. Demands for relief from the instability and inequality linked to globalization forged democracies and dictatorships alike, from Gandhi’s India to America’s New Deal and Hitler’s Third Reich. Immigration restrictions, racially constituted notions of citizenship, anti-Semitism, and violent outbursts of hatred of the “other” became the norm—coming to genocidal fruition in the Second World War.

Millions across the political spectrum sought refuge from the imagined and real threats of the global economy in ways strikingly reminiscent of our contemporary political moment: new movements emerged focused on homegrown and local foods, domestically produced clothing and other goods, and back-to-the-land communities. Rich with astonishing detail gleaned from Zahra’s unparalleled archival research in five languages, Against the World is a poignant and thorough exhumation of the popular sources of resistance to globalization. With anti-globalism a major tenet of today’s extremist agendas, Zahra's arrestingly clearsighted and wide-angled account is essential reading to grapple with our divided present.

For more information, visit the publisher's website.

Wednesday 12 April 2023

BOOK: Michel ERPELDING & Hélène RUIZ FABRI, "The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals, 1919–1939: An Experiment in the International Adjudication of Private Rights" (Nomos, 2023)

Source: Nomos


The creation of 39 Mixed Arbitral Tribunals (‘MATs’) was a major contribution of the post-World War I peace treaties to the development of international adjudication. With over 90 000 claims handled, the MATs were the busiest international courts of the interwar period. Moreover, in a departure from most other international courts and tribunals at that time, they allowed individuals to file claims against sovereign states before them. After 1945, they inspired the creators of the European Court of Justice before disappearing into quasi-oblivion. Relying on legal and historical research, including new archival findings, this volume is specifically dedicated to these pioneering institutions.

Source: Nomos (open access)

CALL FOR PAPERS: "Grotian law and modernity at the dawn of a new age: 400 years of De jure belli ac pacis 1625-2025" (Leiden University, DEADLINE: 1 MAY 2024)

Image source: Grotiana Foundation

 Grotian law and modernity at the dawn of a new age

400 years of De jure belli ac pacis 1625-2025

International Conference 19-20 June 2025

Leiden University Wijnhaven Campus, The Hague 

Call for papers

On the occasion of the 400th anniversary of the first publication of De jure belli ac pacis by Hugo Grotius in 1625, an international conference will be organized by the Grotiana Foundation, the Paul Scholten Centre for Jurisprudence at the University of Amsterdam, the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies at the University of Leiden and the Department of Public Law and Governance at Tilburg University.

In 1925, the third centenary of the first publication of Hugo Grotius’ most seminal work on the law of nations, De jure belli ac pacis libri tres (Three Books on the Law of War and Peace) offered the occasion for elaborate festivities and commemorating activities in and outside the Netherlands. The anniversary was organized against the backdrop of a revival of interest in Grotius as a trailblazer for international law among proponents of the international ‘peace through law’ movement, which went back to the Hague Peace Conferences and was given new traction after the Great War.

In the past few decades, international academic interest has widened beyond the scope of international law to encompass the full extent of Grotius’ life, thought and works across the disciplines. The mainstream narratives of Grotius as ‘father of international law’ and visionary defender of international peace and justice have given way to more nuanced readings of his life and work, as well as his many receptions and revivals, against the changing patterns of social, political and ethical ideas and values. In recent years, Grotius’ role both as an actor in the Dutch imperialist enterprise and a defender of unity and reconciliation among the Christian confessions have been highlighted. All this solicits critical reconsiderations of De jure belli ac pacis and Grotius’ role in the history of international law.

The major aim of the conference is to foster new narratives on the thought of Grotius, in general legal theory as well as in international law against a the backdrop of present-day rapid, fundamental changes that challenge the very foundations of the modernist paradigm, of which Grotius may be considered a key trailblazer. The core question of the academic conference is to what extent Grotian thought about general legal theory and international law is still relevant today, and what adaptations current foundational changes to our world make necessary. In this context, discussion of the many trajectories of reception, appropriation and reinterpretation of Grotius in different times and places, offers a valuable, additional perspective.

Through the conference ‘Grotian law and modernity at the dawn of a new age’, the organizers want to stimulate debate on the constitutional impact of current changes for the global legal order through the lens of a long-term historical analysis. The speakers in the conference are invited to reach back to Grotius’ thought and work as a starting point for discussing the foundations of the modern legal order of the past four centuries and the changes this is currently undergoing. They are asked to use this long-term historical framework to make sense of current upheavals and look for direction towards the future of law.

The conference program falls into three parts (with parallel sessions).

Part I ‘Lineages of Grotian thought’ discusses the material and ideological receptions, reinterpretations and appropriations of De jure belli ac pacis at different times during the past four centuries. It assembles a number of papers that trace the lineages, in terms of material history or content, of Grotius’ ideas with regards to different branches of legal theory or practical law. It looks to reviewing traditional, often celebratory narratives of Grotius from the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries from the perspective of a wide array of themes including political and economic governance, human rights, imperialism or (in)equality.

Part II ‘Modernity and the dawn of a new age: general theory of law and governance’ and Part III ‘Modernity and the dawn of a new age: international law and governance’ address the question of the significance of current changes for the constitution of a new global legal order, using De jure belli ac pacis as a platform for discussing the development, transformation and superseding of modern law.

Part II concerns general questions of the theory of law and governance.

Part III pertains to specific questions of public international law.

At the end of the second day, an academic session will be organized for a wider audience, with a key note speech and a panel discussion on the core topic of the conference.

Invitation to speakers

In addition to three keynote speakers, the organizers invite twelve speakers for each of the three thematic parts of the conference.

Candidates are requested to send in an abstract of 250-400 words and short c.v. of max. 100 words to the general convener, Randall Lesaffer ( by 1 May 2024. Please mention your affiliation and indicate a preference for one of the three conference themes.

The event takes place in person without online presentations. The organization is not in a position to fund accommodation or travel expenses and invites selected speakers to search for funding themselves. Those selected speakers for whom this is impossible, are requested to contact the general convener on this.

Propositions will be assessed by the Organizing Committee and selected on the basis of the quality of abstracts and the fit with the programme.

Part I ‘Lineages of Grotian thought’

Convener: Mark Somos

Keynote speaker: Martine van Ittersum

The material conditions of the production and reception of De jure belli ac pacis form a neglected and highly rewarding field of research. Recent studies of the printing history of various editions have started to clarify Grotius’ own role in the revision and timing of new editions; piracy and rivalry among publishers; the marketing strategy for each edition; and the dissemination and movement of copies. The burgeoning study of annotations that legal scholars, aristocrats, municipal and imperial administrators, prominent politicians and thinkers have left behind in their copies of De jure belli ac pacis is shedding new light on the hitherto unseen history of this work’s real impact. Early insights into the lineages of Grotian thought that only close attention to the surviving copies’ materiality can provide include the intensity and ingenuity of the Catholic reception of De jure belli ac pacis. Another set of discoveries that emerges from the material heritage of De jure belli ac pacis reveals historical moments of focused interest in specific passages of the text in response to crises that previous historiography has never considered to be part of the book’s reception, such as the breakup of the Iberian Union, nineteenth-century abolitionism, or the start of World War I. Grounding the reception history of De jure belli ac pacis in the book’s materiality is essential for recovering the four centuries of its impact in full, from its earliest classroom use to its latest invocation in front of an international tribunal, as well as for reassessing Grotius’ role in the evolution of the laws of war, the relationship between morality and law, sovereignty, natural rights, freedom of navigation and imperialism.

Part I welcomes proposals for papers on the various editions’ printing history, surviving annotations, evidence of the book’s use in classrooms, in court and the corridors of power,  and the broader relationship between the material and intellectual receptions of De jure belli ac pacis. We thereby expressly invite papers on receptions of and engagements with Grotius in different parts of the world.

Part II ‘Modernity and the dawn of a new age: general theory of law and governance’

Convener: Marc de Wilde

Keynote speaker: Annabel Brett

In De jure belli ac pacis, Grotius developed three ideas that have been recognized as major innovations in legal theory. First of all, he presented natural law as the moral foundation of both domestic and international legal systems. Secondly, he revolutionized the traditional understanding of natural law by focusing on the natural rights of individuals. And thirdly, he distinguished between natural law and religious belief, arguing that the rights of individuals had to be protected irrespective of religious differences. With these ideas, Grotius stood at the cradle of the modernist paradigm of legal theory which emphasized the need for a secular and universal legal order based on individual rights. However, depending on the context in which Grotius’s theory was applied, its meaning proved to be ambiguous. Thus, Grotius’s concept of natural law was also used to justify imperialism and colonialism, and it served to legitimize the practice of slavery. Moreover, present-day challenges, such as climate change or the rise of artificial intelligence, require us to reconsider the main assumptions behind Grotius’s theory, such as his notion of the free will or the unlimited availability of natural resources. The speakers are invited to reflect critically on Grotius’s contribution to legal theory and its present-day relevance by presenting papers on the following topics: the universality of natural law (or its limitations), individual rights as foundation of the legal system (and its potential downsides), the relation between natural law, imperialism and slavery, the challenges new technologies pose to the free will and legal regulation, and the state’s role in balancing individual rights and the public good (as, for instance, in the case of climate change).

Part III ‘Modernity and the dawn of a new age: international law and governance’

Convener: Eric De Brabandere

Keynote speaker: Hilary Charlesworth

This part pertains to specific questions of contemporary and future public international law. The actual text of De jure belli ac pacis libri tres is often neglected, given the wealth of secondary sources.  This part of the conference invites critique and examination of the potential of De jure belli ac pacis as a text with contemporary relevance. To this end, Part III invites papers that critically explore the Grotian traditions and its potential impact on particularized problems of contemporary international law. Of special interest are papers that adopt a critical lens to the Grotian legacy in the sphere of international humanitarian law and international criminal law. Critical analysis of the idea of a ‘Grotian Moment’ and the mainstream progress narrative of international law is invited.  Analysis of Grotius’ work on the treatment of foreigners and enemies (of all humankind or otherwise) is welcome, as are papers examining Grotian legacy in the context of jus post bellum (the transition from armed conflict to a just and sustainable peace). Ultimately, this section of the conference hopes to imagine how Grotius’ great work could be used to better manage the problems of, if not the next 400 years, at least the next 40.

Speakers are expected to turn in a draft paper before 1 June 2025. Papers will be distributed to the participants in advance of the conference. Those papers which pass peer review will be published in both the journal Grotiana (New Series) as well as collected in a separate book with Brill.

Organizing committee

Jeroen Vervliet (Grotiana), chair

Eric De Brabandere (Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, University of Leiden), convener ‘International law and governance’

Randall Lesaffer (Department of Public Law and Governance, Tilburg University & Grotiana), general convener

Janne Nijman (Department of Public International Law, University of Amsterdam)

Marc de Wilde (Department of Jurisprudence, University of Amsterdam & Grotiana), convener ‘General legal theory and governance’

Mark Somos (Grotiana), convener ‘Lineages of Grotian thought’

Further introduction to the conference theme

In international law, the term ‘Grotian moments’ is sometimes used to indicate times and occurrences of fundamental change in the constitution of the international legal order. The phrase carries the implication that Grotius’ De jure belli ac pacis was constitutive for the new international order that emerged at the dawn of the modern age.

Grotius’ De jure belli ac pacis is undoubtedly one of the most iconic texts from Western legal history.

While this is widely recognized in relation to international law or natural law jurisprudence, its relevance extends beyond the confines of international law into that of law and governance at large. In many ways, Grotius’ major legal treatise has been and remains a major source for imagining, articulating and debating law as both the guarantor of individual autonomy and an instrument of state policy under the paradigm of modernity.

The Western paradigm of modern law came to full fruition during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the heyday of the sovereign nation-state.  The paradigm of modern law may be caught under its following core features: 1) the autonomy of the individual human being as foundation for social order; 2) consent as the basis for the legal organization of both private transactions and public authority; 3) the separation of a private sphere of liberty from a sphere of public interest; 4) the understanding of the role of public authority and law in terms of balancing between individual autonomy and public interest; 5) the claim to exclusive jurisdiction over law making and law enforcement by the state both in internal and international relations; 6) the global expansion of this model in the context of imperialism, colonization and decolonization.

De jure belli ac pacis held no blueprint for this modern law paradigm, but contained many building blocks, both great and small. Although the question of justice in war stood at the heart of the treatise, Grotius framed it in the context of a novel general theory of law, and did so by addressing a plethora of fundamental issues of private, constitutional and criminal law. Grotius’ reimagination of natural law in terms of individual and individually enforceable rights preconfigured the foundational role of the autonomy of the individual as the key constitutional principle of the modern nation-state with its separation of a private from a public sphere. His contract theory of the state and his equation of the natural rights of the state with those of the individual allowed for the elevation of the state to the sovereign creator of positive law. At the same time, his acknowledgment of the autonomy of natural law from Christian religion allowed to create a standard of justice that was said to derive from universal principles of humanity but at the same time was laden with the inheritance of hundreds of years of Christian and European intellectual tradition.

De jure belli ac pacis does not just stand at the foundations of modern law. For four hundred years it has retained currency as a source of inspiration to argue for new turns and twists along the path of the emergence, the maturation and the transformation of modern law. If 19th-century international lawyers hailed Grotius for having given autonomy to international law as the preserve of the sovereign state, their 20th-century successors have seen in him the remote trailblazer for the supremacy of the international community over the state. In this sense, the relevance of Grotius’ thought has proven resilient to many of the most fundamental changes of the past four centuries and has survived several ‘Grotian moments’ so far.

The two decades that have lapsed since the beginning of the 21st century have witnessed tremendous and profound changes that challenge the very basis of the modern law paradigm. The globalization of economic and social life together with the empowerment of the individual and non-state agents have severely weakened the claims of states to exclusive jurisdiction, furthering the erosion of traditional state-based institutions and principles of democracy and rule of law. The relative decline of the West and the resilience of authoritarianism question the universalism that for the better part of two centuries has been part of the Western paradigm of modernity. Climate change is putting a hard stop on the belief in the unending possibilities of the growth of humankind and its ‘pursuit of happiness’ at the cost of the planet, while according to some the rise of artificial intelligence challenges the very centrality of consent, free will and individual autonomy.

The 400th anniversary of the first publication of Grotius’ De jure belli ac pacis offers an excellent occasion to question the impact of current global changes on the existent global order in terms of a paradigmatic shift away from the modern understanding of law.

Thursday 6 April 2023

BOOK: Mario OYARZÁBAL, "The Influence of Public International Law upon Private International Law: In History and Theory and in the Formation and Application of the Law", Receuil des Cours, Tome 428 (Brill, 2023)

Image source: Brill

The Influence of Public International Law upon Private International Law: In History and Theory and in the Formation and Application of the Law by Mario J. A. Oyarzábal: This course explores the influence of public international law upon private international law, in the history and the theory as well as in the formation and the application of the law. It focuses on the biggest transformations that have taken place on the international plane over the course of the last century and assesses how that has affected the legal landscape, raising questions as to the scope and the potential of private international law and the suitability of the traditional sources of international law to address the role of private actors and the incursion of public law in the private arena. Examples are drawn from the areas of jurisdictional immunities and their impact on the right of access to justice, mutual legal assistance, sovereign debt restructuring, child protection, sports, arts law, cyberspace, and issues related to law of the sea and climate change. This course takes a pragmatic problem-solving approach, which nonetheless is systemic and based on principles, and argues that while public and private international law are and should be kept as separate legal fields, both are needed to address an increasing number of issues.

Table of Contents:
Foreword 141
Preliminary remarks 143
Chapter I. The influence of public international law upon the history and the theory of private international law 146
1. The evolving concepts of public and private international law. . . 146
2. A historical and theoretical overview 151
(a) Jus gentium and the origins of the conflict of laws 151
(b) International comity 152
(c) Sovereignty and the dearth of the internationalist approach . 154
(d) The legal conscience of the civilised world 155
(e) The early normative and institutionalisation efforts 158
(f) The Russian and the American revolutions 163
(g) The growing international legal community 170
(h) International law and development 176
(i) Public law in the international arena 186
(j) The privatisation of the State 196
(k) Expansion and diversification of international law 198
(l) Significance for private international law of the human rights movement 209
(m) From international law to transnational law 223
3. Should private international law be international law? 230
Chapter II. The influence of public international law upon the formation of private international law 240
A. Sources of the law 240
1. Customary international law 240
2. Treaties 244
(a) Private international lawmaking treaties . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
(b) Validity and application of treaties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
(c) Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
(d) Interpretation of treaties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (e) Application of successive treaties regarding the same subject matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (f) Treaties as part of the domestic systems of private interna- tional law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (g) Incidences of non-recognition of States, breach of diplomatic relations and State succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
3. General principles of law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
4. Judicial decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
(a) Decisions of the ICJ and its predecessor. . . . . . . . . . . . 290
(b) Arbitral awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
(c) Decisions of national courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
5. The writings of publicists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
B. Other sources 309
1. “Community” law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
2. Human rights standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
3. Non-legally binding norms 324
4. Party autonomy 332
5. Reciprocity 333
Note on comity 339
Note on international conferences and organisations concerned with private international law 340
Chapter III. The influence of public international law upon the application of private international law: selected problems 342
1. Jurisdictional immunities and the right of access to justice 342
2. From mutual recognition to international legal cooperation . . . . 365
3. Sovereign debt restructuring: Public and private law litigation . . 379
4. International law on the rights of the child 411
(a) International human rights of children in private international law 411
(b) Best interests of abducted children 416
(c) The protection of the best interests of migrant children 421
(d) Best interests of the child in intercountry adoption 428
5. International sports law 431
(a) International sports organisations: Personality and lawmaking and law enforcement 431
(b) The case of FIFA 439
6. International art law 449
(a) Cultural internationalism and cultural nationalism 449
(b) The public and the private international law approaches . . . 452
(c) Free market and exports control 455
(d) Human rights considerations 456
(e) Anti-seizure statutes 458
(f) Conflicts law in illegally exported works of art 461
(g) Cultural heritage, peace and security 462
7. International norms and standards in cyberspace 464
(a) Cybercrime, rights and global politics 466
(b) The rise of cryptocurrency 468
Note on nationality 473
Note on deep seabed mining and the protection of the marine environment 476
Note on sea level rise 477
Critical recap and outlook 480
Epilogue 503
Selected bibliography 505

Mario J. A. Oyarzábal, born in Azul, Argentina, in 1969.
Procurador (1990), Abogado (1991) and Escribano (1992), University of La Plata. Argentine Foreign Service Institute (1995-1996). LLM, Harvard Law School (2005).
Adjunct Professor at the University of La Plata Law School (since 1995). Associate Professor at the University of Buenos Aires Law School (2008-2010). Lecturer at The Hague Academy of International Law, External Program, Buenos Aires (2012).
The Legal Adviser to the Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2016-2020). Member of the United Nations International Law Commission (2023-2027). Arbitrator and Conciliator under Article 2 of Annexes V and VII of the United Nations Convention on the law of the Sea (since 2017). Member of the Panel of Arbitrators and Conciliators of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (since 2016). Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (2019-2022). Member of the International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission established by Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions (2017-2022). Member of the Committee on the Election of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (2019-2020). Member of the Legal and Technical Commission of the International Seabed Authority (2012-2013).
Ambassador of the Argentine Republic to the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Permanent Representative to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, also representing Argentina before the International Court of Justice, the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the International Criminal Court and the Hague Conference on Private International Law (since 2020). Argentine Commissioner to the International Whaling Commissioner (2016-2020). Deputy Permanent Representative of Argentina before the United Nations Security Council (2013- 2014). Lead negotiator for Argentina on the United Nations General Assembly Resolution on the Basic Principles on Sovereign Debt Restructuring Processes (2015). Career diplomat with the Argentine Foreign Service (since 1997).
Head of Delegation and Delegate of Argentina to meetings of the Sixth Committee of the United Nations General Assembly, the International Seabed Authority, the International Maritime Organization, the Hague Conference on Private International Law, the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law and the Inter- American Conferences on Private International Law.
Agent for Argentina before the International Court of Justice in the Advisory Opinion on The Legal Consequences of the Separation of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritius in 1965 (2019), and Legal Counsel in the Case Concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (2010). Legal Counsel before the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in the advisory opinion on the Responsibilities and Obligations of States Sponsoring Persons and Entities with Respect to Activities in the International Seabed Area (2011).

More information with Brill.

BOOK: Slim LAGHMANI, "Islam et droit international", Recueil des cours, Tome 428 (Brill, 2023)

Image source: Brill


Islam et droit international par Slim Laghmani:
Y a-t-il en matière de droit des gens une exception musulmane ? Ce cours tente de montrer que non.
Dans son contenu normatif, le droit de gens musulman a été beaucoup plus déterminé par le cadre historico-politique dans lequel il a été développé et codifié, l’empire, que par la foi musulmane.
Sa forme, sa rationalité interne et son fondement ont été, eux, déterminés par une lecture, une interprétation volontariste de l’Islam qui a été érigée en orthodoxie, un autre fait d’histoire donc.
La particularité du droit des gens musulman tient à ce que ce contenu normatif, cette rationalité interne et ce fondement ont été sacralisés et de ce fait figés et que cette historicité a été en quelque sorte refoulée de sorte que le commun des musulman attribue au divin ce qui a été un fait humain.

Table des matières:
Introduction 21
Chapitre I. L’Islam 26
A. Acteurs et thèses en présence 29
1) Le mu`tazilisme et la possibilité d’un droit humain 30
a) `Ilm al-kalâm, signification et statut 31
b) Le principe de la justice divine 33
i) La raison divine 34
ii) La liberté humaine 35
iii) L’ordre naturel 36
2) Le traditionnisme et l’hérésie d’un droit humain 38
a) Les postulats du traditionnisme 38
i) Le volontarisme divin 38
ii) Le paradigme de la science dans la perspective traditionniste 39
b) Sharî`a et fiqh 40
B. L’affrontement et l’issue 46
1) L’affrontement 47
2) L’ash`arisme ou `ilm al-kalâm ordonné au dogme volontariste. . 50
Chapitre II. Le droit des gens en islam : les siyar 54
A. La discipline des siyar 54
B. A titre de comparaison : notions et définitions dans la tradition juridique grecque, romaine et chrétienne médiévale 56
1) Grèce : l’idée de droit naturel 56
2) Rome : droit naturel et jus gentium 58
3) La Chrétienté médiévale : droit naturel, droit des gens et droit divin 61
C. La structure des siyar 64
1) Règles régissant les rapports de la ‘Umma, la communauté des . croyants, aux autres peuples 64
a) Le droit de la guerre 64
i) Jus ad bellum 64
A titre de comparaison : le jus ad bellum dans la tradition juridique grecque, romaine et chrétienne médiévale 69
ii) Jus in bello 73
A titre de comparaison : le jus in bello dans la tradition juridique grecque, romaine et chrétienne médiévale 74
b) Le droit de la paix 75
i) La paix par la domination : la pax islamica 75
A titre de comparaison : la pax romana 78
ii) La paix par l’équilibre 79
A titre de comparaison : la paix par l’équilibre dans la ratique grecque, romaine et chrétienne médiévale 81
2) Règles régissant des rapports où une partie au moins est un . . . étranger 82
a) L’étranger-ennemi 82
A titre de comparaison : l’étranger-ennemi la tradition juridique grecque, romaine et chrétienne médiévale 83
b) L’étranger-hôte 84
A titre de comparaison : l’étranger-hôte dans la tradition juridique grecque, romaine et chrétienne médiévale 85
Chapitre III. Les siyar et le droit international 87
A. L’existence d’un droit international antique et médiéval 87
1) Les négateurs de l’existence d’un droit international antique et médiéval 87
a)L’absence de l’infrastructure du droit international 89
b) L’absence de règles juridiques internationales 89
2) L’affirmation de l’existence d’un droit des gens antique et médiéval 90
a) L’existence (intermittente) de l’infrastructure nécessaire au droit international 93
i) Les premières collectivités interétatiques 93
ii) « Les premières sociétés internationales » 96
b) L’existence de règles juridiques internationales à caractère. . primitif 98
i) Présence de règles juridiques internationales 98
ii) Un droit international primitif 101
Conclusions 102
B. Compréhension : la cohérence interne des siyar 106
1) Détermination négative 106
a) L’absence du concept de souveraineté 107
b) L’absence du principe d’égalité 108
c) L’absence de la logique de l’accord 110
2) Détermination positive 111
C. Explication : facteurs et fonctions du droit des gens 115
1) L’Empire et l’universalisation de sa culture 117
2) L’Empire et la domination universelle 118
Synopsis : l’Islam classique 123
Bibliographie sélective 125

Slim Laghmani, né le 12 novembre 1957 à Tunis (Tunisie).
Docteur d’Etat en droit, Université de Tunis (1990), prix présidentiel de la thèse de doctorat. Admis major au concours d’agrégation en droit public et en sciences politiques, Université de Tunis (1992).
Assistant, maître assistant et maître de conférences agrégé à la Faculté des sciences juridiques, politiques et sociales de Tunis (FSJPST). Actuellement professeur à la FSJPST, Université de Carthage. Enseignements : le droit international public, la philosophie du droit, les droits de l’Homme et le droit constitutionnel comparé.
Directeur du Laboratoire « Droit communautaire et relations Maghreb-Europe » (2001-2013). Responsable du mastère « Droit communautaire et relations Maghreb Europe » (1999-2012). Directeur du département de droit public de la FSJPST (1996-1999 et 1999-2002). Chef du programme d’appui à la qualité de la FSJPST « Renforcement des capacités en ingénierie pédagogique et appui à la qualité du Système LMD en sciences juridiques » (2010-2011).
Secrétaire de rédaction de la Revue tunisienne de droit (RTD 1980, RTD 1981, RTD 1982 et RTD 1983).
Professeur invité de plusieurs universités et instituts.
Depuis 1999, expert auprès de la « Commission nationale du droit de la mer » et à ce titre : membre de la délégation tunisienne qui a conclu l’accord sur « les arrangements provisoires relatifs à la délimitation des frontières maritimes entre la Tunisie et l’Algérie » signé à Alger le 11 février 2002 et l’accord définitif relatif à la délimitation des frontières maritimes entre la Tunisie et l’Algérie (signé à Alger le 11 juillet 2011, ratifié par la Tunisie en 2011 et par l’Algérie en 2013) ; membre du Groupe mixte de juristes et d’experts tuniso-italien sur le statut juridique des espaces maritimes situés entre les deux Etats ; membre du Groupe mixte de juristes et d’experts tuniso-libyen sur les questions maritimes intéressant les deux Etats.
Président de l’Association tunisienne de droit constitutionnel (2017-2020).
Membre de la Commission des libertés individuelles et de l’égalité créée par Décret présidentiel en date du 3 août 2017 et, à ce titre, co-auteur du rapport de ladite Commission remis au chef de l’Etat le 8 juin 2018.
Membre du Comité des experts au sein de la Haute instance de réalisation des objectifs de la révolution, de la réforme politique et de la transition démocratique, président de la sous-commission des libertés publiques chargée de l’élaboration du projet de décret-loi relatif aux partis politiques et du projet de décret-loi relatif aux associations (2011).
Membre désigné par l’Agence d’évaluation de la recherche et de l’enseignement supérieur du Comité d’évaluation des unités et laboratoires de recherches de l’Université de Paris I Panthéon Sorbonne (vague D, 2009).

More information with Brill.

Tuesday 4 April 2023

CALL FOR PAPERS: Cold War Research Network, "New International Economic Order, Lessons and Legacies 50 Years Later" (Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, DEADLINE: 30 April 2023)

Image source: Cold War Research Network

The Cold War Research Network would like to draw your attention to the Call for Papers for the New International Economic Order, Lessons and Legacies 50 Years Later conference project.

In collaboration with Temple University, University College London, the History and Political Economy Project, El Colegio de México and the Berggruen Institute, the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice will convene a two-day conference in Venice on the 10 & 11 of May 2024 that will explore topics related to the New International Economic Order’s history and afterlives.

The central contention of this collaborative Call for Papers initiative is to highlight and analyse how a series of proposals during the 1970s encouraged the reshaping of the global economy with particular reference to the distribution of wealth and governance in world affairs.

Scholars are strongly encouraged to participate in the conference by submitting 200/250 word abstract and a short bio by April 30th, 2023.

Submissions will be reviewed by the conference committee and successful applicants will be notified by July 2023.

The deadline for submitting the Full Paper will be the 30th of March, 2024.

Download the full call for papers via this link or the website of the network.

BOOK LAUNCH: Frank GERITS, "The ideological scramble for Africa and a conversation about teaching African International History" (Utrecht University/Zoom, 19 April 2023)

Image source: Cold War Research Network


Date: 19 April 2023
Time: 17:00 - 20:00
Location: Utrecht University, Drift 21, Room 0.05 (Sweelinckzaal)

The Cold War Research Network is proud to co-sponsor the book launch of Dr. Frank Gerits, titled The Ideological Scramble for Africa: How the Pursuit of Anticolonial Modernity Shaped a Postcolonial Order, 1945–1966 (Cornell University Press, March 2023).

In his latest publication, Frank Gerits examines how African leaders in the 1950s and 1960s crafted an anticolonial modernization project. The Ideological Scramble for Africa demonstrates that the Cold War struggle between capitalism and Communism was only one of two ideological struggles that picked up speed after 1945; the battle between liberation and imperialism proved to be more enduring.

Frank Gerits is an Assistant Professor in History of International Relations at Utrecht University, the Netherlands, a Research Fellow of the International Studies Group at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa and an external fellow at Shanghai University. In 2020, Frank Gerits published as a co-editor the book Visions of African Unity: New Perspectives on the History of Pan-Africanism and African Unification Projects.

To participate in this event registration is required.

For online participation, please send an email to this address <> in order to receive a zoom-link.

Consult the Cold War Research Network website for more details.

Monday 3 April 2023

CALL FOR PAPERS: "The Lausanne Moment 100 Years On. Interdisciplinary Interventions Location" (Thessaloniki, DEADLINE: 15 April 2023)

Image source: Lausanne Project website


The Lausanne Moment 100 Years On. Interdisciplinary Interventions

Location: Thessaloniki, Greece

Date: 9-11 November 2023

CfP Deadline: 15 April 2023

Keynote round table (tbc): Renée Hirschon (anthropology), Fotini Tsibiridou (anthropology), Konstantinos Tsitselikis (international law), Baskın Oran (political science), Ayhan Aktar (historical sociology)

A century after the signing of the Lausanne Treaty and the forced population exchanges it endorsed, the Lausanne moment continues to shape international politics and debates surrounding sovereignty, migration, security, and identity. A question posed by one American journalist covering the conference (Ernest Hemingway) continues to rankle: “What is peace?”.

While the Lausanne Treaty is one of the few treaties of the interwar period that have withstood the passage of time, perceptions of the Treaty have been less stable and less univocal. The “unmixing” of communities, considered a valid peace-making tool in 1923 has come to be seen as mutual “ethnic cleansing”. Meanwhile in Turkey, fierce debate swirls around whether Lausanne should be considered a Turkish ‘victory’ or a ‘defeat’. In Greece aspects of the treaty, such as the jurisdiction of the mufti to apply Sharia law in Western Thrace have faced solid legal criticism. Even as regional stability appears to be under threat, many insist that the treaty is a bastion of peace not to be touched. Discussion of the revisability (or not) of the treaty was enough to create a Greek-Turkish diplomatic incident.

The Lausanne Project in collaboration with the Department of Balkan, Slavic and Oriental Studies at the University of Macedonia are organizing an international conference to be held in Thessaloniki, Salonica, Selanik, a city that inspired and then endured the coming of this new historical era characterized by a shift from cosmopolitanism to competing nationalisms.

We invite scholars working across humanities and social sciences (anthropologists, international law and international relations scholars, political scientists, historians, sociologists, architects) to consider the peace and the world Lausanne made. The conference aims to bridge the divide isolating the disciplines that have addressed the Lausanne Treaty.

The Lausanne Project also collaborates with artists, curators and high school teachers to bring the latest research to diverse audiences. We invite such practitioners to propose interventions that reflect on how they have engaged with the Lausanne moment.

We hope that the conference will foster a new interdisciplinary dialogue, the fruits of which will be published as an edited volume.

Suggested themes include (but are not limited to):

Historical aspects – new perspectives

o Legal imperialism and nationalism

o Transimperial banks and debts

o Trade and the economy

International Law and International Relations

o To revise or not to revise? The legal scholars’ debate

o Greek-Turkish relations and the phantom of Lausanne

o The Kurdish issue today

Commemorating the Lausanne Moment

o Architecture and place-making

o The performing and visual arts

o Curating Lausanne

o Teaching Lausanne

Lausanne’s legacy in politics

o Post-imperial statehood

o Humanitarianism, Liberal Internationalism and NGOs

o Forced migration and settlement policies

The language of the conference will be English. There is no registration fee. We aim to cover the travel and accommodation costs for participants who cannot call on financial support from their institution. Applicants should indicate in their paper proposals if they would need to avail themselves of such support.

Please send a 400-word abstract with a short resume in a single document (max 2 pages total) by 15 April 2023 to Please note if you will need financial support on the same document. The organisers will inform the participants of their decision by 3 May 2023.

Organizers: The Lausanne Project in collaboration with the Department of Balkan, Slavic and Oriental Studies at the University of Macedonia.

Scientific Committee (in alphabetical order)

    Jonathan Conlin (University of Southampton, The Lausanne Project)

    Georgios Giannakopoulos (City, University of London, The Lausanne Project)

    Leonidas Karakatsanis (University of Macedonia)

    Ozan Ozavci (Utrecht University, The Lausanne Project)

    Julia Secklehner (Masaryk University, The Lausanne Project)

    Dimitris Stamatopoulos (University of Macedonia)

    Fotini Tsibiridou (University of Macedonia)

    Konstantinos Tsitselikis (University of Macedonia)
Visit the Lausanne project website for more information.

BOOK: Natasha WHEATLEY, "The Life and Death of States: Central Europe and the Transformation of Modern Sovereignty" (Princeton University Press, 2023)

Image source: PUP
An intellectual history of sovereignty that reveals how the Habsburg Empire became a crucible for our contemporary world order

Sprawled across the heartlands of Europe, the Habsburg Empire resisted all the standard theories of singular sovereignty. The 1848 revolutions sparked decades of heady constitutional experimentation that pushed the very concept of “the state” to its limits. This intricate multinational polity became a hothouse for public law and legal philosophy and spawned ideas that still shape our understanding of the sovereign state today. The Life and Death of States traces the history of sovereignty over one hundred tumultuous years, explaining how a regime of nation-states theoretically equal under international law emerged from the ashes of a dynastic empire.

Natasha Wheatley shows how a new sort of experimentation began when the First World War brought the Habsburg Empire crashing down: the making of new states. Habsburg lands then became a laboratory for postimperial sovereignty and a new international order, and the results would echo through global debates about decolonization for decades to come. Wheatley explores how the Central European experience opens a unique perspective on a pivotal legal fiction—the supposed juridical immortality of states.

A sweeping work of intellectual history, The Life and Death of States offers a penetrating and original analysis of the relationship between sovereignty and time, illustrating how the many deaths and precarious lives of the region’s states expose the tension between the law’s need for continuity and history’s volatility.

Natasha Wheatley is assistant professor of history at Princeton University. She is the coeditor of Remaking Central Europe: The League of Nations and the Former Habsburg Lands and Power and Time: Temporalities in Conflict and the Making of History. Her writing has appeared in Past & Present and the London Review of Books.

More information with the publisher.