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Resolving the Misunderstood Historical Order: A Korean Perspective on the Historical Tributary Order in East Asia (Si Jin Oh)
Regarding the historical East Asian order, previous studies appear to have emphasized Chinese and Japanese perspectives, and this academic phenomenon seems to have contributed to solidifying a misunderstanding. This study attempts to present a Korean perspective providing different points of view that challenge previous perspectives on the legal status of Korea in the nineteenth century. One of the critical misunderstandings about the historical relationship between China and Korea is that of vassalage. However, such an analogy is misleading. The East Asian international normative order, which was based on Li, is a particular order that requires a separate treatment. The nature of the tributary order would not necessarily impair sovereignty if it were possible to project and apply the classical international law of the nineteenth century. As the policy of Dongdoseogi represents, however, Korea once seemed to have preferred to maintain the two normative systems simultaneously.From Swords to Words: the Intersection of Geopolitics and Law, and the Subtle Expansion of International Law in the Consolidation of the Independence of the Latin American Republics (Nicolas Carillo-Santarelli & Carolina Olarte-Bácares)
Looking at successive chronological stages in the development from the de facto independence of former Spanish colonies towards their first timid recognition by the United Kingdom and their later full acceptance as states by the Spanish monarchy, this article examines several factors that indicate that pragmatism, motivated by political and economic reasons, was the defining element that persuaded different European powers to grant recognition to the nascent States in a historical era in which such recognition was essential for statehood. Those Latin American Republics likewise benefited from British recognition and the later definitive recognition of Spain and other European powers, bending the limits of the law then existing with dynamics based on the principle of effectiveness coupled with certain legitimacy considerations, which have been present throughout history, including the present.Divide and Then Preside: the Dilemma of the First Asian President of the Permanent Court of International Justice in the Age of Empires: a Review Essay on Yanagihara Masaharu and Shinohara Hatsue Eds, Adachi Mineichirō (2017)
Adachi Mineichirō was the first non-European and the first Asian President of the Permanent Court of International Justice (1931–1934). This review article introduces the first substantial study of Adachi, focusing on his path of ‘becoming’ one of a few leading international jurists with non-Euro-American backgrounds in his period. This review essay demonstrates that by examining this Japanese diplomat and jurist, the book, written in Japanese, contributes to the debates on the history of international law in two significant ways. First, it reveals the fundamental issues in the development of the international judicial system, namely the nature of international jurists, empires and the principle of the equality of national sovereignty, and the significance of the roles of non-Euro-American actors in shaping the system. Secondly, it demonstrates the necessity of the inter-disciplinary collaboration between international law, international history and specific regional and national history, as well as methodological challenges in evaluating the historical development of the system.Book reviews.
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